~ Science ~

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Use these questions to make flash cards for each test.

Study the flash cards, your notebook, and the textbook for each test.

Scientific Method  (SOL 5.1)

What are the seven steps in the scientific method?

1.      observe

2.      question

3.      hypothesis

4.      predict

5.      experiment

6.      analyze

7.      decision

What do you do when you observe?

You look at the world around you.

What is a hypothesis?

It is an educated guess.

What is a prediction?

It is a forecast about what may happen in some future situation.

What is the independent variable?

It is the thing that you are testing in the experiment.

How many independent variables should there be in an experiment?

There is one.

What are the things in an experiment that do not change?

They are constants.

What are repeated trials?

Scientists repeat experiments in the exact same way several times.

What is an inference?

It is a conclusion you can draw from your observations.

How many constants should there be an experiment?

Everything should be a constant except the independent variable.

Cells (SOL 5.5)

What is an organism?

It is any living thing that can carry out life on its own.

What is the smallest unit of living matter?

It is a cell.

What is the name for a one-celled organism?

It is unicellular.

What is the name for a many-celled organism?

It is multi-cellular.

What is chlorophyll?

It is a green chemical in plant cells that allow the plant to use the sun's energy to make food.

What is a group of similar cells that work together at the same job?

It is a tissue.

What is a group of tissues working together to do a certain job?

It is an organ.

What is an organ system?

It is a group of organs that do a certain job.

What does the mitochondria do for the cell?

It produces energy.

What does the nucleus do for the cell?

It controls the cell.

What does a vacuole do for the cell?

It stores water and waste.

What are organelles?

They are the basic structures that allow the cell to perform life processes.

What do chloroplasts do for the plant cell?

They make food.

What is cytoplasm?

It is a jelly-like substance between the organelles of the cell.

What two parts does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not?

A plant cell has a cell wall and chloroplasts.

What shape is an animal cell?

It is spherical.

What shape is a plant cell?

It is rectangular.

What gives the cell its shape?

It is the cell membrane.

How many organisms have been identified?

More than a million organisms have been identified.

Are there more unicellular or multicellular organisms?

There are more unicellular organisms.

What kind of cells did Robert Hooke first see?

They were cork cells.

Classifying Living Things (SOL 5.5)

What is the science of organizing categories for living things?

It is classification.

What is the largest group into which an organism can be classified?

It is the kingdom.

What is the smallest group into which an organism can be classified?

It is the species.

What kind of animal has a backbone?

It is a vertebrate.

What kind of animal does not have a backbone?

It is an invertebrate.

What kind of plant has tissue through which food and water move?

It is a vascular plant.

What is a nonvascular plant?

It has no tissue through which food and water move.

How are fungi different from plants?

They cannot make their own food.

What is an example of an invertebrate?

A jellyfish is an invertebrate.

What is an example of a nonvascular plant?

Moss is nonvascular.

Name the five Kingdoms of Living Things

1.      animals

2.      plants

3.      fungus

4.      bacteria

5.      protists

What is an example of a fungus?

A mushroom is a fungus.

How do fungi get their food?

They use decaying organisms.

Which kingdom is unicellular without a nucleus?

It is the bacteria kingdom.

Which kingdom includes yeast and mold?

It the the fungus kingdom.

Which kingdom includes one-celled animal-like and plant-like organisms?

It is the protist kingdom.

Plants (SOL 5.5)

What is the name of seed plants that produce flowers?

It is an angiosperm.

What is the name of seed plants that do not produce flowers?

It is a gymnosperm.

What is xylem?

It is the tissue through which water and minerals move in a plant.

What is phloem?

It is the tissue through which food from the leaves move throughout the plant.

What is cambium?

It is the layer of plant tissue that separates the xylem from the phloem.

What is the food-making process in green plants called?

It is called photosynthesis.

What is the word for the loss of water through a plant's leaves?

It is called transpiration.

What is the process in which energy is released from food?

It is respiration.

Name three ways that roots help a plant.

1.      They absorb water and minerals.

2.      They anchor the plant.

3.      They store food.

Name three ways that stems help a plant.

1.      They support leaves, flowers, and branches.

2.      They are a transport system.

3.      They lift leaves to get sunlight.

Name three ways that leaves help the plant.

1.      They make food.

2.      They store food.

3.      They regulate water loss.

What is the formula for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight (energy) = sugar + oxygen

What is the formula for respiration?

Oxygen + sugar = carbon dioxide + water + energy

Animals (SOL 5.5)

What is the word for something that cannot be divided into mirror images?

It is asymmetrical.

What is a body plan in which all body parts of an organism are arranged around a central point?

It is radial symmetry.

What is a body plan in which an organism can be divided along only one plane of its body to produce two mirror images?

It is bilateral symmetry.

What kind of mammal lays eggs?

It is a monotreme.

What kind of mammals have a pouch in the female where offspring develop after birth?

It is a marsupial.

In what kind of mammal do the young develop inside the mother?

It is a placental mammal.

Where do most simple invertebrates live?

They live in water or moist places.

Name the four kinds of simple invertebrates.

1.      sponges

2.      cnidarians

3.      flatworms and roundworms

4.      segmented worms

Name the three complex invertebrates.

1.      mollusks

2.      echinoderms

3.      arthropods

Which complex invertebrates usually have a shell?

Mollusks usually have a shell.

Which complex invertebrates have an endoskeleton?

Echinoderms have an endoskeleton.

Which complex invertebrates have an exoskeleton?

Arthropods have an exoskeleton.

Which complex invertebrates have jointed legs?

Arthropods have jointed legs.

What is an example of a mollusk?

It is a snail, clam, or octopus.

What is an example of an echinoderm?

It is a star fish or sea urchin.

What is an example of an arthropod?

It is a spider, lobster, or an insect.

Name the five classifications of vertebrates?

1.      fish

2.      amphibians

3.      reptiles

4.      birds

5.      mammals

What kind of skeleton does a shark have?

A shark has a skeleton made of cartilage.

What kind of skeleton does a goldfish have?

A goldfish has a skeleton made of bone.

Which group of invertebrates has tentacles?

Cnidarians have tentacles.

Which group of invertebrates breathe with gills when young and with lungs as adults?

They are amphibians.

What is the largest group of animals?

It is arthropods.

Landforms (SOL 5.6)

What is a landform?

It is a physical feature on Earth's surface.

Which map shows the elevation of an area with colors or shading?

It is a relief map.

Which map that shows the elevations of an area of Earth;s surface using contour lines?

It is a topographical map.

What is the atmosphere?

It is the layers of gases that surround Earth.

What is Earth's water called?

It is the hydrosphere.

What is the crust?

It is the rocky surface of Earth that includes the continents and the ocean floor.

What is the mantle?

It is the nearly melted layer of hot rock below Earth's crust.

What is the liquid layer of iron and nickel below Earth's mantle?

It is the outer core.

What is the inner core made of?

It is made of a solid layer of nickel and iron in the center of the Earth.

What is the name of the ocean floor near a continent?

It is the continental shelf.

What is the wide, flat area of ocean?

It is the abyssal plain.

What are underwater mountain ranges called?

They are mid-ocean ridges.

What is the deepest part of the ocean floor?

It is a trench.

What are underwater mountains that rise above the water level?

They are seamounts.

What is the sharp drop off of land near a continent?

It is the continental slope.

What is the central part of Earth?

It is the core.

Earth's Structure (SOL 5.6)

What is a geologist?

A geologist is a scientist who uses rocks to learn about Earth's history and structure.

What is the scientific theory that Earth's crust is made of moving plates?

It is plate tectonics.

What is hot, melted rock below Earth's surface?

It is magma.

What is a deep crack in Earth's crust?

It is a fault.

What are the three ways Earth's plates move?

1.      convergent

2.      divergent

3.      transform

How do transform plates move?

They slide past each other.

How do convergent plates move?

They collide together.

How do divergent plates move?

They spread apart.

What happens when magma rises through the ocean floor?

It forms a mid-ocean ridge.

What is an opening in Earth's crust through which lava may flow?

It is a volcano.

What is hot, melted rock that reaches Earth's surface?

It is lava.

What is a stationary location in Earth's mantle where magma melts through a tectonic plate?

It is a hot spot.

What is the Ring of Fire?

It is a circle of volcanoes that surround the Pacific Ocean.

Minerals, Rocks, and Soil (SOL 5.6)

What is a meander?

It is a bend or S-shaped curve in a river.

What is sediment?

It is the particles of soil or rock that may be eroded and deposited.

What is a floodplain?

It is the land near a river that is likely to be under water during a flood.

What is weathering?

It is the process through which rocks or other materials are broken down into smaller pieces.

What is erosion?

It is the process of carrying away soil or pieces of rocks.

What is a large sheet of ice and snow that moves slowly over land?

It is a glacier.

What is the process of dropping off pieces of eroded rock?

It is deposition.

Name five ways that erosion can happen.

1.      gravity

2.      glacier

3.      rain

4.      running water

5.      wind

What is a mineral?

A mineral is a solid, nonliving material of Earth's curst with a distinct composition.

What is the way a mineral reflects light from its surface?

It is luster.

What is how well a mineral resists scratching/

It is hardness.

What kind of rock is made from compacted and cemented material?

It is sedimentary.

What kind of rock is formed when magma or lava cools and hardens?

It is igneous.

What kind of rock forms from another kind of rock under heat and pressure?

It is metamorphic.

What is the rock cycle?

It is the never ending process in which rocks change from one kind to another.

You can determine the color of a mineral by looking at its ____.


What is streak?

It is the color of the powder when rubbed on a rough surface.

What property can be described by the words shiny, waxy, pearly, earthy, oily, or silky?

It is luster.

What do geologists use to tell how hard a mineral is?

They use the Moh's Hardness Scale.

What does a mineral have if it breaks along smooth surfaces?

It has cleavage.

What does a mineral have if it breaks along rough surfaces?

It has fracture.

What kind of igneous rock forms inside Earth and has large crystals?

It is intrusive.

What kind of igneous rock cools at the surface and has little or no crystals?

It is extrusive.

What kind of sedimentary rock has small rounded stones cemented together?

It is conglomerate.

What two things must happen to form a metamorphic rock?

It is heat and pressure.

What is the layer of soil that is nearest the surface?

It is topsoil.

What is humus made of?

It is made of decayed organic material.

Where do we find humus?

It is in the topsoil.

Properties of Matter and Elements (SOL 5.4)

What is matter?

It is anything that has mass and takes up space.

What is the amount of matter in a certain volume of a substance?

It is density.

The upward push of a liquid or a gas on an object placed on it is called _____.


What is mass?

It is the measure of the amount of matter in an object.

What is weight?

It is a measure of how much gravity pulls on an object.

What is volume?

It is a measure of how much space an object takes up.

What measurement changes depending on the planet you are on?

It is weight.

What measurement remains the same even on different planets?

It is mass.

What depends on the density of the object and the liquid?

It is buoyancy.

What idea did John Dalton have?

He believed elements were made of tiny particles that could not be cut into smaller pieces.

Name the three parts of an atom.

1.      proton

2.      neutron

3.      electron

Where are protons found?

They are found in the nucleus.

What kind of charge do protons have?

They have a positive electric charge.

Where are neutrons found?

They are found in the nucleus.

What kind of charge do neutrons have?

They have no electric charge.

Where are electrons found?

They are found outside the nucleus.

What kind of charge do electrons have?

They have a negative electric charge.

How do molecules form?

Atoms link their electrons.

How many elements have been discovered?

There are 112 elements.

What do the letters in a chemical formula tell?

They tell the type of atoms in the molecule.

What do the numbers in a chemical formula tell?

They tell how many atoms of each kind there are.

What are the most common elements in space?

They are hydrogen and helium.

What is the most common element on earth?

It is hydrogen.

Metals, Nonmetals, and States of Matter (SOL 5.6)

What is malleability?

It is the ability to be bent, flattened, hammered, or pressed into a new shape without breaking.

What is ductility?

It is the ability to be pulled into thin wires without breaking.

What is the gradual wearing away of a metal as it combines with nonmetals in its environment?

It is corrosion.

What is the material that conducts electricity better than a nonmetal but not as well as a metal?

It is a semiconductor.

Most elements are ______.


Name the three properties of metals.

1.      shiny

2.      conducts heat and electricity

3.      can be shaped without breaking.

Which element is used for wires to conduct electricity?

It is copper.

Why is titanium used to replace joints in the body?

It does not react with other elements in the body.

What kind of elements are poor conductors of electricity?

They are nonmetals.

Most nonmetals are _____ at room temperature.


What is a change of matter in size, shape, or state that does not change the type of matter?

It is a physical change.

What is the process of changing directly from a solid into a gas without first becoming a liquid?

It is sublimation.

What is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid into a liquid?

It is the melting point.

What is the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas? 

It is the boiling point.

What is the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid?

It is the freezing point.

What is the boiling point of water in Celsius and Fahrenheit?

It is 100 C and 212 F.

What is the freezing point of water in Celsius and Fahrenheit?

It is 0 C and 32 F.

What is the slow change from liquid to gas when the substance is below the boiling point?

It is evaporation.

Mixtures and Compounds (SOL 5.6)

What is the physical combination of substances that are blended without forming a new substance?

It is a mixture.

What is a colloid?

It is a type of mixture in which the particles of one material are scattered and block the light without settling out,

What is a mixture of substances that are blended completely?

It is a solution.

What is a substance that is dissolved by another substance to form a solution?

It is a solute.

What is a substance that dissolves other substances to form a solution?

It is a solvent.

What is an alloy?

It is a solution of a metal with another metal.

What is solubility?

It is the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved by another substance.

What is the process of separating the parts of a mixture by evaporation and condensation.

It is distillation.

What kind of mixture has different parts that can be plainly seen?

It is a heterogeneous mixture.

What kind of heterogeneous mixture has its parts settling to the bottom of the container?

It is a suspension.

What is a good example of a suspension?

It is Italian salad dressing.

What is a good example of a colloid?

It is a marshmallow.

On what does solubility often depend?

It often depends on temperature.

What is the universal solvent?

It is water.

When you make Kool-aide, what is the solvent and what is the solute?

Water is the solvent and the powdered mix is the solute.

What are three ways that a mixture can be physically separated?

1.      magnetism

2.      filters

3.      density

What is NaCl?

It is sodium chloride which is table salt.

What is Fe2O3?

It is iron oxide which is rust.

What is C8H12O6?

It is fructose or fruit sugar.

What occurs when atoms link together in new ways to create a substance different from the original substances?

It is a chemical change.

Sound (SOL 5.2)

What is a series of rarefactions and compressions traveling through a substance?

It is a sound wave.

What is a medium?

It is a substance through which a wave travels.

What is a space that contains little or no matter?

It is a vacuum.

What is the transfer of energy when a wave disappears into a surface?

It is absorption.

What is frequency?

It is the number of times an object vibrates per second.

What is the measure of how high or low a sound is?

It is pitch.

What determines the pitch of a sound?

It is the frequency.

What is amplitude?

It is the height of a sound wave.

What determines the volume of a sound?

It is the amplitude.

What is the process of finding an object using reflected sound?

It is echolocation.

What is sound?

It is vibrations.

In what state of matter does sound travel the fastest?

It travels fastest through solids.

In what state of matter does sound travel the slowest?

It travels slowest through gases.

Why is there no sound in space?

Space is a vacuum so there is no matter to vibrate.

What kind of material is best for absorbing sound?

Sound is absorbed when the material is soft, thick, and uneven.

What are reflected sound waves?

Reflected sound waves are echoes.

What produces a higher pitch in a musical instrument?

A higher pitch comes from a shorter string or tube.

What is the Doppler Effect?

Sounds have a higher pitch when they are close to you.

What unit measures the volume of sound?

Volume is measured in decibels.

At what decibel level can hearing be damaged?

Hearing is damaged at sounds louder than 85 decibels.

Light (SOL 5.3)

What is a wavelength?

A wavelength is the distance from one peak to the next on a wave.

What is a tiny bundle of energy through which light travels?

It is a photon.

What is blurred or scattered light as it passes through an object?

It is translucent.

What is the "picture" of the light source that light waves make in bouncing off a polished, shiny surface?

It is an image.

What is the bending of light waves as they pass from one substance to another?

It is refraction.

What is a cut piece of clear glass with opposite sides in the shape of a triangle?

It is a prism.

What is a band of colors produced when light goes through a prism?

It is the spectrum.

What is the way electric and magnetic forces interact?

It is electromagnetism.

In what two ways does light travel?

It travels as a wave and a particle.

What is the speed of light?

It is 186,000 miles per second.

Light travels in _____ lines.


What kind of substance allows the most light to pass through?

It is transparent.

What kind of substance allows little or no light to pass through?

It is opaque.

What occurs when an object is between a light source and another object?

It is a shadow.

What does absorbed light become?

It is heat.

What kind of objects absorb more light?

Dark objects absorb more light.

What states that the angle of an incoming light ray equals the angle of the reflected light ray?

It is the Law of Reflection.

What are the colors of the visible spectrum?

They are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.