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Use these questions to make flash cards for each chapter.
Around a Round World-SOL US1.1g and SOL US1.2
What is a large land mass surrounded by oceans?
It is a continent.
Name the continents.
1. North America
2. South America
What continent is not completely surrounded by water?
Europe is not surrounded by water.
To what continent is Europe connected?
It is attached to Asia.
What are the connected continents called?
It is called Eurasia.
How do scientists believe the first people arrived in North America?
They walked across the land bridge from Asia.
What is Earth's largest continent?
It is Asia.
Which continent has the oldest signs of human life?
Africa has the oldest signs.
Which continent has no permanent human life?
Antarctica only has visiting scientists.
What is the smallest continent?
Australia is the smallest.
Name the five oceans.
1. Atlantic Ocean
2. Pacific Ocean
3. Indian Ocean
4. Arctic Ocean
5. Southern Ocean
Where is north on a map?
North is at the top of a map.
What is half of a globe?
A hemisphere is half.
What are the imaginary lines that go east and west around the Earth?
Parallels of latitude go around the Earth.
What latitude line is 0 degrees?
The equator is the latitude line.
What are the imaginary lines that go north and south?
They are called meridians of longitude.
What line is 0 degrees longitude?
It is the Prime Meridian.
Fifty Nifty United States
Study the state flash cards to learn the location of all fifty states!
CHALLENGE #1 Learn to spell the names of all the states.
CHALLENGE #2 Learn the names of all the state capitals.
America, the Varied-SOL US1.2
What kind of land produces good crops?
Fertile land produces good crops.
What is a row of mountains?
A range is a row of mountains.
What region has rugged mountains along the Pacific Coast?
It is the Coastal Range.
What mountain ranges are a part of the Coastal Range?
They are the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades.
What word means the height above sea level?
It is elevation.
What region has areas of different elevations?
It is the Basin and Range.
What is the lowest point in North America?
It is Death Valley.
What region has rugged mountains that stretch from Canada to Mexico?
It is the Rocky Mountains.
What feature determines the directional flow of rivers?
The Continental Divide determines the flow of rivers.
In what region do we find the Continental Divide?
It is in the Rocky Mountains.
What region has flat land that gradually increases in elevation going west?
It is the Great Plains.
In what region would we find large areas of grasslands?
Grasslands are in the Great Plains.
What region has rolling flatlands with grassy hills?
It is the Interior Lowlands.
What do we call the place where the Coastal Plain reaches the Appalachian Highlands?
It is the Piedmont.
What region has old eroded mountains?
It is the Appalachian Highlands.
What is the oldest mountain range in North America?
The Appalachian Mountains are the oldest.
What region is located along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico?
It is the Coastal Plain.
What region has broad lowlands with many excellent harbors and bays?
It is the Coastal Plain.
What is the gradual wearing away of rock?
It is erosion.
What is a large body of continuously accumulating ice and compacted snow?
It is a glacier.
Which region is wrapped around Hudson Bay like a horseshoe?
It is the Canadian Shield.
What region has hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers?
It is the Canadian Shield.
Waters of Life-SOL US1.2
What word means many different forms or kinds?
Varied means different forms.
What word means communication or activity between two places?
It is interaction.
Name three things that bodies of water do for our country?
1. They support interaction among regions.
2. They form borders.
3. They create links to other areas.
What body of water separates Europe and Africa from North and South America?
It is the Atlantic Ocean.
What do we call a person who settles in a new country?
It is an immigrant.
What body of water served as a highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants?
It was the Atlantic Ocean.
What body of water separates Asia from the Americas?
It is the Pacific Ocean.
What is the Earth's largest ocean?
It is the Pacific Ocean.
What body of water served as an early exploration route?
It was the Pacific Ocean.
What do we call the five huge lakes on the border with Canada?
They are the Great Lakes.
Name the Great Lakes in order from west to east.
1. Lake Superior
2. Lake Michigan
3. Lake Huron
4. Lake Erie
5. Lake Ontario
What grew in the Midwest along each of the Great Lakes?
Inland port cities grew in the Midwest.
What body of water was used by Spanish and French explorers?
It was the Gulf of Mexico.
What two rivers are used to transport farm and industrial products?
They are the Mississippi River and the Missouri River.
What river links United States' ports to other parts of the world?
The Mississippi River links ports.
What is the most famous river in the United States?
The Mississippi River is the most famous.
What river is called the "Gateway to the West"?
It is the Ohio River.
What is the longest river in the United States?
The Missouri River is 200 miles longer than the Mississippi River.
What river connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean?
It is the Saint Lawrence River.
What river forms part of the northeastern border with Canada?
The Saint Lawrence River forms the border.
What river was explored by Lewis and Clark?
They explored the Columbia River.
What river carved the Grand Canyon millions of years ago?
It is the Colorado River.
What river was explored and mapped by the Spanish?
They explored the Colorado River.
What river forms a natural border between the United States and Mexico?
The Rio Grande is the border.
What river supplies water for much of the Southwest?
The Rio Grande supplies water.
Key Geographic Features-SOL US1.1f
What influenced the course of events in United States history?
It was the land and and water features.
Name four developments led by key geographic features.
1. Patterns of trade
2. Locations of cities and towns
3. Settling the west by European colonists
4. Development of agriculture and fishing
What is a stream that flows into a larger river?
A tributary flows into a larger river.
Name four water features.
4. Gulfs or Bays
What is an area of high ground with a fairly level surface?
It is a plateau.
What is land surrounded by water on three sides?
It is a peninsula.
America's First People-SOL US1.3
What is the recovery of physical artifacts such as bones, tools, and pottery from the past?
It is archaeology.
What are scientists who study human behavior and culture through the recovery of artifacts?
They are archaeologists.
Where is Cactus Hill?
It is on the Nottoway River north of Richmond, Virginia.
How long ago did humans live at Cactus Hill?
They lived there 15,000 years ago.
What are the three kinds of resources that helped the ancient people to survive?
1. Natural Resources
2. Human Resources
3. Capital Resources
What are natural resources?
They are things from nature like plants and animals.
Name three examples of natural resources used by Native Americans.
1. Fish, animals, and plants were used for food.
2. Rocks were used for spear points.
3. Grass, wood, and animal skins were used for homes.
What are human resources?
They are people who work to make goods and services.
Name five examples of the human resources Native Americans needed to survive.
1. People who fished
2. People who sewed clothing
3. People who cooked
4. People who hunted
5. People who built homes
What are capital resources?
They are goods produced and used to make other goods and services.
Name three examples of capital resources Native Americans made.
How did Native Americans feel about owning land?
They believed land could not be owned.
How many Native American nations were there before the Europeans arrived?
More than 300 nations were there.
Where did the Inuit live?
They lived in Alaska and northern Canada
What was the climate where the Inuit lived?
They lived in the Arctic with below freezing temperatures much of the year.
What kind of clothes did the Inuit wear?
They were made of animal skin and fur.
What did the Inuit eat?
They ate fish, walrus, seals, caribou, and whales.
How did the Inuit make their homes?
They used whale bones covered with grass and skins.
Where did the Kwakiutl live?
They lived in the Pacific Northwest coast.
What was the climate where the Kwakiutl live?
The weather was mild and rainy.
What kind of clothes did the Kwakiutl wear?
They were made from cedar bark.
What did the Kwakiutl eat?
They are deer, moose, salmon, shellfish, berries.
How did the Kwakiutl make their homes?
They were made from large cedar trees.
How did the Kwakiutl show their family history?
They built totems.
Where did the Lakota live?
They lived on the dry grasslands of the Great Plains.
What was the climate where the Lakota lived?
The Great Plains have hot summers and cold winters.
What did the Lakota use for clothing?
They used buffalo hides.
What did the Lakota eat?
They hunted buffalo and grew corn.
What kind of homes did the Lakota have?
They built teepees made of buffalo skins.
What is a travois?
It is a sturdy A-shaped sled used for carrying belongings.
Where did the Pueblos live?
They lived in the Southwest.
What was the climate like where the Pueblos lived?
It was hot and dry in the desert.
What did the Pueblos wear?
They wore clothes made of woven cloth.
What did the Pueblos eat?
They grew corn and other crops with very little water.
What is adobe?
It is clay bricks that bake rock hard in the hot sun.
What kind of homes did the Pueblo people live in?
Their homes were tall apartment buildings made of adobe.
What are kachinas?
They are carved spirit dolls used to teach about right and wrong.
What are kivas?
They are special round rooms used for ceremonies.
Where did the Iroquois live?
They lived in the Eastern Woodlands.
What was the climate like where the Iroquois lived?
They lived in areas with cold winters and moderate summers.
What did the Iroquois wear?
They made clothes from animal skins.
What did the Iroquois eat?
They hunted forest animals and grew corn, beans, and squash.
What kind of houses did the Iroquois build?
They lived in longhouses made of wood.
What were the Great Laws of Peace?
It was a society that settled disputes.
Where do Native Americans live today?
They live in their homelands and in all parts of North America.
Gold, God, and Glory-SOL US1.4
What is navigation?
Navigation is guiding a ship from place to place.
What allowed Europeans to find the best routes to Asia?
They made new discoveries and tools for navigation.
To what did new navigational tools lead?
They lead to the Age of Exploration.
What was the most popular religion in Europe?
It was Christianity.
Name three reasons Europeans wanted to explore.
1. Economics (gold)
2. Religion (God)
3. Power (glory)
What is cultural superiority?
It is believing your way of life is better than others.
What were the economic reasons for exploring?
They wanted gold, salt, spices, and new markets for trading.
What were the religious reasons for exploring?
Europeans believed Christianity should be the only religion and they wanted to spread their faith everywhere.
What were the power reasons for exploring?
Europeans competed to grab the most land and each country believed in cultural superiority.
What is an obstacle?
An obstacle is something that prevents progress.
Name the four obstacles that the explorers faced.
1. Poor maps and navigational tools
2. Disease and starvation
3. Fear of the unknown
4. Lack of supplies
What does it mean to achieve?
To achieve is to succeed in doing something.
Name three things the explorers achieved.
1. New exchanges
2. New ships and tools
3. New lands
Name the three empires that dominated West Africa from 300 A.D. to 1600 A.D.
Where were the African Empires located?
They were located south of the Sahara Desert near the Niger River.
How did the African Empires become powerful?
They controlled trade in West Africa.
What did the African Empires have to trade?
They had salt and gold.
Ships from what European country sailed south along Africa's coast?
Ships from Portugal sailed south.
What did the Portuguese bring from Europe to trade?
They brought metals, cloth, and manufactured goods.
With what other trade did Portugal become involved?
They traded for slaves.
What played an important role in increasing European interest in world resources?
African people and African goods played an important role.
What is a clash between ideas or people?
A clash is called a conflict.
What is the Spanish word for a person who conquers others by using force to take what he wants?
It is conquistador.
What is the exchange of ideas or products?
It is an interaction.
What were the possible results when Native Americans and Europeans interacted?
Sometimes the interactions led to cooperation and other times there were conflicts.
What European group conquered and enslaved Native Americans?
The Spanish mistreated the Indians.
What happened when the Spanish brought European diseases?
They killed millions of people.
What religion did the Spanish bring to the New World?
They brought Christianity and insisted the Indians accept it.
Which Europeans set up a network of trading posts to get furs?
The French set up trading posts.
What group was eager to spread the Christian religion?
The French invited the Indians to see their religion.
Which Europeans established settlements and claimed ownership of the land?
The English made settlements.
What did the English learn from the Native Americans?
They learned farming techniques.
Which two European groups traded with the Native Americans?
The English and the French traded.
What three things did all European groups bring to North America?
They all brought guns, iron swords, and metal farm tools.
What did American Indians believe about land?
They thought land should be shared and not owned.
What might have happened to the settlers without the Indians' help?
They would have starved.
What did the Native Americans want from the settlers?
They wanted European weapons and farm tools.
Name three reasons the Spanish succeeded.
1. They brought horses.
2. They had better weapons.
3. They brought deadly diseases.
What was a mission?
A mission was a combination church and school.
For what country did Coronado explore?
He explored for Spain.
Where did Coronado explore?
He explored the Southwest.
Why were the English interested in exploring the New World?
They wanted to become more powerful.
For what country did Henry Cabot explore?
Cabot explored for England.
Why did the French work well with the Native Americans?
They were trading partners.
What did the French want from the Native Americans?
They wanted fur pelts.
What two explorers explored for France?
Samuel Champlain and Robert LaSalle explored for France.
Who founded the settlement of Quebec?
Samuel Champlain founded Quebec.
Who claimed the Mississippi River Valley?
Robert LaSalle claimed the Mississippi River Valley.
What does it mean to exchange?
Exchange means to give and receive from one another.
What is the huge exchange of plants, animals, foods, humans, diseases, languages and ideas after 1492?
The Columbian Exchange is the huge exchange.
What good things did the Europeans get from the New World?
They liked potatoes, corn, and turkey.
What good things did the Europeans bring to the New World?
They brought horses, cattle, and chickens.
What terrible thing did the Europeans bring?
They brought disease.
What is a disease that causes skin blisters and a high fever?
It is a pox.
What was the deadliest pox?
It was smallpox.
In what three ways did the explorers and Indians cooperate?
1. Europeans brought weapons and metal tools.
2. They traded.
3. The Indians helped with growing crops.
In what five ways did the explorers and Indians have areas of conflict?
1. They disagreed about land.
2. They were in competition for trade.
3. They had differences in culture.
4. The Europeans brought diseases.
5. There were language differences.
What area was both a conflict and a cooperation?
Trade is in both lists.
When Two Worlds Met-SOL US1.5
What is constant bad treatment because of religious or ethnic background?
It is persecution.
What is a person who owes money to someone else?
He or she is a debtor.
What kind of venture was Roanoke Island?
It was an economic venture.
Was Roanoke Island a success or a failure?
Roanoke Island was a failure.
What is Roanoke Island called?
It is called the "Lost Colony" because all the settlers vanished.
What kind of venture was Jamestown?
It was an economic venture.
What group paid for the Jamestown venture?
The Virginia Company of London funded it.
Was Jamestown a success or failure?
It was a success.
Why is Jamestown important?
It was the first permanent English settlement in North America.
What kind of venture was Plymouth Colony?
It was a religious venture.
Who settled Plymouth Colony?
It was settled by the Pilgrims who were Separatists who left the Church of England to avoid persecution.
What kind of venture was the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
It was a religious venture.
Who settled Massachusetts Bay Colony?
It was settled by the Puritans.
What kind of venture was the Pennsylvania Colony?
It was a religious venture.
Who settled Pennsylvania?
It was settled by the Quakers.
What kind of venture was the Georgia Colony?
It was an economic venture.
Who settled in Georgia?
It was settled by people from debtors' prisons in England.
What word means that two or more people who depend on each other for goods and services?
The word is interdependence.
What word means focusing on making one or more products?
It is specialization.
What colonies were included in the New England Colonies?
They are Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire.
What is the geography like in the New England Colonies?
They have jagged coastlines, rocky soil, hilly terrain, and the Appalachian Mountains.
What is the climate like in the New England Colonies?
They have moderate summers and cold winters.
What kind of people settled the New England Colonies?
They were settled by religious reformers and separatists.
What kind of social activities did the New England Colonies have?
The church in the villages was the center of the social life.
Where were laws made in the New England Colonies?
They were made at town meetings.
Name five kinds of economic specialization in the New England Colonies.
3. boating supplies
4. metal working
5. wood working
What colonies were included in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
It was New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.
What was the geography like in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
They have coastal lowlands, harbors and bays, wide and deep rivers, and the Appalachian Mountains.
What is the climate like in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
It has a moderate climate with mild winters.
What kind of people settled in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
Settlers came from many countries with diverse religions.
What kind of social life was there in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
Villages and cities had many different languages, customs, and religions.
Where were laws made in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies?
They met in market towns.
Name four kinds of economic specialization in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies.
1. livestock farms
2. grain farms
4. banks and stores
What is an indentured servant?
An indentured servant agreed to work for 5-7 years in exchange for a free passage to America, food, clothing, and shelter.
What is a large property devoted to growing mainly one crop, such as tobacco or rice?
It is a plantation.
What is indigo?
It is a deep blue dye.
What colonies were a part of the Southern Colonies?
The colonies were Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
What is the geography of the Southern Colonies like?
There are good harbors and rivers, the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Appalachian Mountains.
What was the climate like in the Southern Colonies?
The climate was humid with mild winters and hot summers.
What kind of people lived in the Southern Colonies?
There was a great divide between wealthy landowners and enslaved people.
Where did the social life happen in the Southern Colonies?
Because there were few schools and cities, the social life was on the plantations.
Where did the Southern Colonies make their laws?
The laws were made in the counties.
Name five kinds of economic specialization in the Southern Colonies.
5. forest products
Why were the colonies interdependent on one another?
They were interdependent because of each colony's specialization.
What are the raw materials, people, and equipment used to produce goods and services?
They are resources.
What word means having to do with boats and ships?
The word is naval.
What caused the people to have varied lives in all the colonies?
Their social position caused their lives to be varied.
Where did most of the large landowners live?
They lived mainly in the South.
Who did the large landowners rely on to make money for them?
They relied on indentured servants and enslaved people.
Were many of the large landowners well educated?
Some of the large landowners had an education.
How did the large landowners socialize?
They had many parties, balls, and dinners to see their friends.
Where did farmers live?
They lived in all three regions.
Who helped the farmers to make money?
Every member of the family worked.
What happened to indentured servants at the end of their contract?
Indentured servants were free at the end of their contract if they survived.
What two economic advantages did free African Americans have?
1. They were able to own land.
2. They could work for pay and spend the money the way they wanted.
What disadvantage did free African Americans have?
They were not allowed to vote.
Name two ways the enslaved African Americans ended up as slaves.
1. They were captured in Africa and sold as slaves.
2. They were born to a slave mother.
Britain Rules-SOL US1.5d
What is a person who owns a very large tract of land and acts as governor of the area?
It is a proprietor.
What countries joined together to make Great Britain in 1707?
England, Scotland, and Wales joined together.
What did Great Britain strictly control?
They controlled trade.
What did the colonies trade with Great Britain?
They traded raw materials for manufactured goods.
Who appointed colonial governors?
They were appointed by the king or proprietor.
Who made laws for each colony?
A colonial legislature made laws, but they were monitored by the colonial governor.
What laws did the colonists have to obey?
They had to obey British laws because the governor enforced them.
Who was the greatest enemy of the British?
France had been their enemy for hundreds of years.
What land did the French and the British fight over in the colonies?
They fought over the Ohio Valley.
Who fought on each side?
The French and the Iroquois fought against the British and enemies of the Iroquois.
What fort was the young George Washington sent to capture?
He was sent to take Fort Duquesne.
What fort did Washington and his men build?
They built Fort Necessity.
What happened to George Washington at Fort Necessity?
He was forced to surrender and returned to Virginia.
How did the British fight?
They marched and fought in straight lines.
How did the French and the Indians fight?
They hid behind rocks and trees.
What happened at the end of the war?
The British won and claimed the Ohio Valley.
Name two reasons the French and Indian War was important.
1. Great Britain taxed the colonies after the war.
2. George Washington learned military tactics.