Red Kayak


·       Compressions - short applications of pressure

·       Grumbled - complained in a bad-tempered way

·       Insistently -in a persistent and urgent way

·       Minute -a period of time equal to sixty seconds

·       Neutral - a position of gears in which no motion goes from an engine to other working parts

·       Consistent -usually; in a normal way

·       Intentionally -on purpose




Thunder Rose


·       Branded -marked by burning the skin with a hot iron

·       Constructed -put together, fitted together; built

·       Daintily -with delicate beauty; freshly and prettily

·       Devastation -the act of laying waste; destruction

·       Lullaby -song for singing to a child; soft song

·       Pitch -a thick, black, sticky substance made from tar or turpentine

·       Resourceful -good at thinking of ways to do things; quick witted

·       Thieving -stealing

·       Veins -membranous tubes forming part of the system of vessels that carry blood to the heart






Island of the Blue Dolphins


·       Gnawed -bitten at or worn away

·       Headland -a narrow ridge of high land jutting out into the water

·       Kelp -any of various large, tough, brown seaweeds

·       Lair -den or resting place of a wild animal

·       Ravine -a long, deep, narrow, valley eroded by running water

·       Shellfish -a water animal with a shell

·       Sinew -tendon






Satchel Paige


·       Confidence -firm belief in yourself

·       Fastball - a pitch thrown at high speed with very little curve

·       Mocking- laughing at; making fun of

·       Outfield -the three players in the outfield

·       Unique - having no like or equal

·       Weakness - a weak point; slight fault

·       Windup -a swinging movement of the arms while twisting   the body just before pitching the ball





Ten Mile Day


·       Barren -unable to grow plant life

·       Deafening - so loud as to cause a loss of hearing

·       Lurched -moved suddenly

·       Previous -occurring earlier in time or position

·       Prying - moving up, apart, or open, or out with force

·       Surveying - measuring the size, borders, and shape of (as a plot of land)





At the Beach


·       Algae -Group related living plants and monerans found mostly in water, which can be as small as a scum on rocks or as large as seaweed.

·       Conceal -To put out of sight; hide.

·       Driftwood -Wood carried along by water or washed ashore from the water.

·       Hammocks -A hanging bed or couch made of canvas, cords, etc.

·       Lament -To feel or show grief for; mourn aloud for; feel sorry about; regret.

·       Sea urchin -Any numerous small, round sea animals with spiny shells.

·       Sternly - Strictly; firmly

·       Tweezers -Small pincers for pulling out splinters or hair, picking up small objects, etc.




Hold the Flag High


·       confederacy - a group of people, states, or countries that work together

·                                glory - praise, honor 

·       quarrel -a fight

·       rebellion - a conflict that leads to war

·       stallion -a male horse

·       union -states that are united as one country

·       canteen -a container that holds drinks






The Ch’i-lin Purse


·       Astonished- surprised greatly; amazed

·                                Behavior -manner of behaving; way of acting

·       Benefactor -person who has given money or kindly help

·       Distribution -act or process of giving some of to each; dividing and giving out in shares

·       Gratitude -kindly feeling because of a favor received; desire to do a favor in return; thankfulness

·       Procession -something that moves forward; persons marching or riding

·       Recommend -to speak in favor of; suggest favorably

·                                Sacred -worthy of reverence

·       Traditions -customs or beliefs handed down from generation to generation






A Summer’s Trade


·       Bandana -a cloth or kerchief worn on the head or around the neck

·       Bracelet -a band or chain worn about the wrist as an ornament

·       Hogan -a cone-shaped Navajo shelter built by covering a log frame with bark and mud.

·       Jostled - bumped or pushed around roughly

·       Mesa a rock formation or mountain with a flat top

·       Navajo - a member of the Navajo Indian tribe

·       Turquoise – a precious blue-green stone




The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere



·       steed -a war horse; high spirited horse

·       somber -dark and gloomy

·       magnified -made to look larger than it really is

·       lingers -stays on, leaves slowly

·       glimmer -a light that is not very bright or steady; a dim light

·       fearless -not afraid of anything; bold

·       fate -what is meant to happen to a person, group, or nation; destiny





The Fabulous Perpetual Motion Machine


·       applauds  - shows approval by clapping hands, shouting

·       browsing  - looking here and there

·       fabulous  - wonderful; exciting

·       inspecting  - looking over carefully; examining

·       project - a special assignment planned and carried out by a student or group of students






Leonardo’s Horse


·       Achieved - carried out to a successful end

·       Architect - person who designs and makes plans for buildings

·       Bronze - a dark yellow-brown alloy of copper and tin

·       Cannon - a big gun, especially one mounted on a base or wheels

·       Depressed - gloomy; sad

·       Fashioned - made, shaped, or formed

·       Midst - in the middle of

·       Philosopher - a person who attempts to discover and understand the basic nature of knowledge and reality

·       Rival - a person who wants and tries to get the same thing as another or one who tries to equal or do better than another; competitor




Dinosaurs of Waterhouse Hawkins


·       Erected - put up; built

·       Foundations - parts on which the other parts rest for support; bases

·       Mold -a hollow shape in which anything is formed, cast, or solidified

·       Occasion -a special event

·       Proportion -a proper relation among parts

·       Tidied -put in order; made neat

·       Workshop -space or building where work is done





Mahalia Jackson



·       Slavery - the practice of owning another person

·       Released - made public

·      Teenager - someone between thirteen and nineteen years old

·       Appreciate - value

·       Choir -group of singers

·       Religious - having a belief in one or more gods

·       Barber -one who cuts hair

·       Famous - known far and wide





Special Effects in Film & TV


·       Background - the part of a picture or scene toward the back

·       landscape - a view of scenery on land

·       miniature -reduced image or likeness; done on a small scale

·       prehistoric - belonging to periods before recorded history

·       reassembled -came, brought, or put together again






·       Blunders -stupid mistakes

·       Civilization -the ways of living of a people or nation

·       Complex -made up of a number of parts; hard to understand

·       Envy -feeling of discontent, or desire because another person has what you want

·       Fleeing -running away

·       Inspired -filled with a thought or feeling; influenced

·       Rustling -causing a light soft sound of things rubbing together

·       Strategy -the skillful planning and management of anything






Tripping Over the Lunch Lady



·       Dalmation -a certain breed of dog

·       Sprained -wrenched and twisted

·       Promenading -strolling

·       Frilly -ruffled

·       Substitute -replacement





Exploding Ants


·       Critical - extremely important

·       Enables - makes someone or something able to do an action

·       Mucus -slimy substance produced in the nose and throat to moisten and protect

·       Scarce -hard to get; rare

·       Specialize -to do one thing extremely well

·       Sterile -free from bacteria and other living things; totally clean





The Stormi Giovanni Club


·       Cavities  - hollow places in teeth caused by decay

·       Combination - a sequence of numbers or letters that opens a combination lock

·       Demonstrates - shows how a thing is done

·       Episode - one part of a story that is published in several parts, one at a time

·       Profile - moderate attitude or position, deliberately chosen in order to avoid notice ("low profile")

·       Strict - very careful in following a rule or in making others follow it




The Gymnast


·       Bluish - somewhat blue

·       cartwheels - sideways handsprings

·       gymnastics - a sport with difficult exercises

·       hesitation - indecision

·       limelight -center of attention

·       skidded - slipped or slide while moving

·       somersault - to turn the heels over the head

·       throbbing - beating rapidly





The Skunk Ladder


·       Abandoned - tossed aside; left behind

·       Attempt - To try; to make an effort

·       Bellow - shout loudly and without restraint

·       Cavern -a large cave of room size or larger

·       Feat -an act or deed that shows daring, skill, or strength

·       Immensely -A great deal; very much

·       Savage -marked by extreme and violent energy






The Unsinkable Wreck of the R.M.S. Titanic


·       Cramped - Shut into a small space.

·       Debris -Scattered fragments; ruins.

·       Interior -Inner surface or part; inside.

·       Ooze -A soft mud or slime, especially at the bottom of a pond or river or on the ocean bottom.

·       Robotic -Of or for a machine with moving parts and sensing devices controlled by a computer.

·       Sediment - Material that settles to the bottom of a liquid.

·       Sonar -Device for finding the depth of water or for detecting and locating underwater objects.



Talk with an Astronaut


·       AccomplishmentSomething that has been done with knowledge, skill, or ability; achievement

·       Role - A part played by a person in real life

·       Specific - Definite; precise; particular.

·       Monitor - A screen connected to a computer.

·       Focus - The central part of attraction, attention, activity, etc.

·       Gravity - The natural force that causes objects to move or tend to move toward the center of the Earth and causes objects to have weight.





Journey to the Center of the Earth


·       Armor - any kind of protective covering

·       Encases - covers completely; encloses

·       Extinct - no longer existing

·       Hideous - very ugly; frightful; horrible

·       Plunged - fell or moved suddenly downward or forward

·       Serpent -snake, especially a big snake





Ghost Towns of the American West


·       Economic - of or about the management of income, supplies, and expenses of a household, government, etc.

·       Independence - freedom from the control influence, support, or help of others

·       Overrun - to spread over

·       Scrawled - written or drawn poorly or carelessly

·       Vacant - not occupied




The Truth About Austin’s Amazing Bats


·       Bizarre - peculiar or strange

·       high-pitched - deafening and piercing to the ear

·       vital - necessary, crucial, very important

·       breathtaking - amazing, astonishing

·       roost - sit or perch

·       headline - heading or title of a newspaper or news article




The Mystery of St. Mathew Island


·       Bleached - to whiten by exposing to sunlight or by using chemicals

·       Decay - process of rotting

·       Parasites - any living thing that lives on or in another, from which it gets its food, often harming the other in the process.

·       Tundra - vast, level, treeless plain in the arctic regions. The ground beneath its surface is frozen even in summer.

·       Scrawny - having little flesh; lean; thin; skinny

·       Suspicions - belief; feeling; thought

·       Carcasses - body of a dead animal

·       Starvation - suffering from extreme hunger





King Midas and the Golden Touch


·       Adorn - to add beauty to; put ornaments on

·       Cleanse - to make clean

·       Lifeless -without life

·       Precious -valuable

·       Realm -kingdom

·       Spoonful - as much as a spoon can hold




The Hindenburg


·       Criticizing - finding fault with; disapproving of; blaming

·       Cruised -traveled at the speed at which the vehicle operates best

·       Drenching -wetting thoroughly; soaking

·       Era -a period of time or history

·       Explosion -act of bursting with a loud noise; a blowing up

·       Hydrogen - a colorless, odorless gas that burns easily





Sweet Music in Harlem


·       Bass -the largest, lowest-sounding stringed instrument in an orchestra or band.

·       Clarinet -a woodwind instrument, having a mouthpiece with a single reed and played by means of holes and keys

·       Fidgety -restless; uneasy

·       Forgetful -apt to forget; having a poor memory

·       Jammed - made music with other musicians without having practiced

·       Nighttime -time between evening and morning

·       Secondhand -not new; used already by someone else