~ Math ~
Measuring Metric Capacity SOL 5.8c
In a graduated cylinder, measure from the bottom of the curve (meniscus).
Capacity is the measure of the amount of liquid a container holds.
A graduated cylinder is the tool you use to measure capacity.
1000 milliliters (mL) = 1 liter (L)
An eyedropper holds about 1 milliliter (mL) of liquid.
You can buy 1 liter (L) of soda or juice.
A liter is the basic unit of metric capacity.
Measuring Metric Mass SOL 5.8c
Mass is the measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
Mass is not how much something weighs.
Weight is how much gravity is pulling on an object.
A balance is the tool used to measure metric mass.
1000 grams (g) = 1 kilogram (kg)
1 gram (g) is about the mass if a paper clip.
1 kilogram (kg) is about the mass of a large container of peanut butter.
A gram is the basic unit of metric mass.
Measuring Metric Length SOL 5.8c
10 millimeters (mm) = 1 centimeter (cm)
100 centimeters (cm) = 1 meter (m)
1000 meters (m) = 1 kilometer (km)
1 millimeter (mm) is about the thickness of a dime.
1 centimeter (cm) is about the size of a pencil eraser.
1 meter (m) is about the width of the classroom door.
1 kilometer (km) is less than 1 mile. (1 mile = 1.6 kilometers)
The basic unit of metric length is meters.
Converting Metric Units SOL 5.8c
King Henry Doesn't Usually Drink Chocolate Milk
Step 1: Write King Henry Doesn't Usually Drink Chocolate Milk.
Step 2: Copy the measurement with the decimal.
Step 3: If there is no decimal, write it on the right.
Step 4: Draw an arrow over the number.
Step 5: Count how many spaces your decimal must travel, but don't count the space you are on.
Step 6: Follow the arrow and move the decimal that many spaces.
Customary Length SOL 5.8e
Rulers, yardsticks, and tape measures are tools used to measure length in standard measurement.
Rulers measure in inches and in parts of an inch. Parts of an inch are shown in fractions: eighths, fourths, and halves.
Fractions are always simplified to lowest terms. 2/8 is simplified to 1/4.
1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in)
1 yard (yd) = 3 feet (ft)
1 yard (yd) = 36 inches (in)
1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi) = 1760 yards (yd)
Customary Capacity SOL 5.8e
1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts (qt)
1 quart (qt) = 2 pints (pt)
1 pint (pt) = 2 cups (c)
1 cup (c) = 8 fluid ounces (fl. oz)
A small cup of coffee is about 1 cup.
A tall glass of lemonade or a large bowl of soup is about 1 pint.
Oil for a car comes in a quart size container.
A large container of milk comes in a gallon-sized container.
Customary Weight SOL 5.8e
Weight is the measure of the force of gravity on an object.
16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (lb)
2000 pounds (lb) = 1 ton (T)
A slice of bread weighs about 1 ounce (oz).
A loaf of bread weighs about 1 pound (lb).
A large car weighs about 1 ton (T).
Place Value of Whole Numbers SOL 5.4
Place value tells us how much each digit is worth.
To read a whole number:
Place Value of Decimals SOL 5.5a
Think of money to help you understand decimals.
How to read decimals:
Remember there is no "oneths" place!
Rounding Decimals SOL 5.1
To round decimals:
Comparing and Ordering Decimals SOL 5.1
We compare and order decimals when we look at a menu.
When we compare we use terms such as less than <, greater than >, or equal to =.
Comparing decimals is similar to comparing whole numbers. Example: 4 < 45, 150 >105.
Equivalent decimals are decimals that name the same number. Example: 0.60 = 0.6
To order decimals:
15. 14.95 Decimals can be ordered from least to greatest or
14.95 15. greatest to least.
15.8 15.01 Make sure you check the directions!
Estimating Sums and Differences SOL 5.4
To estimate sums or differences:
Adding and Subtracting Decimals SOL 5.5a
To add or subtract decimals:
12.3 + 3.034
Writing Equations SOL 5.18abcd
An equation is a number sentence that shows two quantities are equal.
A variable is a symbol or letter that stands for some number.
The python is the longest snake in the world. At birth it is 2 feet long, and some adult pythons are 29 feet long. How much do these pythons grow to reach adult length? Write an equation with a variable to model the problem.
2 + f = 29
Write a problem for this equation.
3 + n = 5
Mrs. Bowen had 5 apples. 3 apples were on her desk. Some more apples were in her lunchbox. How many apples were in her lunchbox?
Mean, Median, Mode, and Range SOL 5.16abcd
The mean (fair share) is the average of a set of numbers.
The median (measure of center) is the middle number in a set of numbers.
The mode is the number that appears most frequently in a set of numbers.
The range (measure of variation) is the difference in the greatest and least in a set of numbers.
To find the mean:
To find the median:
To find the mode:
There may be one, two or more, or no modes in a list of numbers.
To find the range:
Collecting, Organizing, and Displaying Data SOL 5.15
A stem and leaf plot is a way to organize the numbers in a set of data.
To make a stem and leaf plot:
A line graph is used to show change over time.
Estimating Products SOL 5.4
The product is the answer to a multiplication problem.
Factors are the numbers you multiply together to get another number.
To estimate products:
Multiplying Two Digit Numbers SOL 5.4
To multiply by a two digit factor:
Estimating Decimal Products SOL 5.5a
To estimate decimal products:
Multiplying with Decimals. SOL 5.5a
To multiply numbers with decimals:
When multiplying decimals, never line up the decimals!
Dividing Whole Numbers SOL 5.4
A quotient is the answer to a division problem.
The divisor is the number on the outside of the division sign. This is the number "dividing into" another number.
The dividend is the number on the inside of the division sign. This is the number being divided.
Remember...Dirty Monkeys Smell Completely Bad (Divide, Multiply, Subtract, Compare, Bring down)
Dividing with a Double Digit Divisor SOL 5.4
To divide with a double digit divisor:
Word Problems SOL 5.4
Remember with any word problem, you need to read carefully. Highlight or underline key information.
Look for key words.
Addition - total, all together, sum
Subtraction - difference, how many more or less
Multiplication - how many of the same thing repeated, times, each
Division - how many equal groups, divided evenly, same number, each
Try to think about how it would work in real life.
Order of Operations SOL 5.7
Order of Operations is the special rules mathematicians must follow when a problem has more than one operation.
P is for parentheses.
E is for exponents.
M & D are for multiplication and division.
A & S are for addition and subtraction.
PEMDAS can stand for Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.
The correct answer can only be found when using the correct order of operations.
Patterns SOL 5.17
To find the pattern:
An input output table is similar to a machine. You put a number into the table (input), change the number based on the certain rule, and then get a new number (output).
Properties of Addition and Multiplication SOL 5.18
Commutative Property for Addition a + b = b + a
Commutative Property for Multiplication a x b = b x a
Associative Property for Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
Associative Property for Multiplication (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)
Distributive Property a(b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c)
The Distributive Property states that multiplying a sum by a number gives the same result as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products.
Odd and Even SOL 5.3b
An odd number does not have 2 as a factor and it is not divisible by 2.
The factors of 17 are 1 x 17. You cannot divide 2 into 17 evenly.
An even number does have 2 as a factor and it is divisible by 2.
The factors of 14 are 1 x 14, and 2 x 7. You can divide 14 by 2 evenly.
Divisibility Rules SOL 5.3a
Divisible by 2
All even numbers are divisible by 2.
Divisible by 3
Add the digits. If the sum is divisible by 3, so is the original number.
Divisible by 5
All numbers ending in 0 or 5 are divisible.
Divisible by 6
If a number is divisible by 2 and 3, it is divisible by 6.
Divisible by 10
All numbers ending in 0 are divisible by 10.
Factors, Prime, and Composite Numbers SOL 5.3a
The product is the answer to a multiplication problem.
A factor is a number that is multiplied by another to give a product.
A factor can divide evenly into another number.
A prime number is a number that has only two factors, itself and 1.
7 is prime because the only numbers that will divide into it evenly is 1 and 7.
7 is prime because the only way it can be made with multiplication is 1 x 7.
A composite number is a number that has more than two factors.
8 is composite because its factors are 1 x 8 and 2 x 4.
Factor Trees SOL 5.3
Factor Trees are diagrams that allow you to find the prime factorization of a number.
Prime factorization shows how to made a number using only prime numbers.
Making Equivalent Fractions SOL 5.2b
A numerator is the top number in a fraction.
A denominator is the bottom number in a fraction.
To make an equivalent fraction, multiply the numerator and denominator by the same number.
You will get a new fraction with the same value as the original fraction.
We are not changing the value of the fraction, because we are simply multiplying by a fraction that is equivalent to 1.
When the numerator and denominator of a fraction are the same, the fraction equals 1.
Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers SOL 5.2b
A improper fraction has a numerator that is greater than the denominator.
A mixed number has a whole number part and a fraction part.
To change an improper fraction to a mixed number:
To change a mixed number into an improper fraction:
Comparing and Ordering Fractions SOL 5.2b
To compare two fractions:
To compare a group of fractions:
Relating Fractions and Decimals SOL 5.2a
To write a decimal as a fraction:
.2 = 2/10 = 1/5
To change a fraction to a decimal:
Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Like Denominators SOL 5.6
To add fractions with like denominators:
To subtract fractions with like denominators:
Adding and Subtracting Fractions with Unlike Denominators SOL 5.6
To add fractions with unlike denominators:
To subtract fractions with unlike denominators:
Adding Mixed Numbers with Unlike Denominators SOL 5.6
To add mixed numbers with unlike denominators:
Subtracting Mixed Numbers with Unlike Denominators SOL 5.6
To subtract fractions with unlike denominators:
Geometry Terms SOL 5.12a
A line goes on and on in both directions. A line is drawn with an arrow on each end.
An endpoint is a point at the end of a line segment or ray.
A line segment is part of a line. It is drawn with two endpoints.
A ray goes on and on in one direction. It is drawn with an arrow on one end and an endpoint on the other.
Parallel lines are always the same distance apart and they will never touch.
Intersecting lines are tow lines that cross each other.
Perpendicular lines are two intersecting lines that intersect for form right angles.
Angles SOL 5.12a
Angles are two rays that share an endpoint.
A right angle measures 90 degrees.
An acute angle measures less than 90 degrees.
An obtuse angle measures more than 90 degrees.
A straight angle measures exactly 180 degrees.
A circle is 360 degrees.
Measuring Angles SOL 5.11
A protractor is a tool used to measure angles.
To measure an angle, you must line up the protractor correctly by putting the circle exactly on the endpoint and the lines exactly on the rays.
Look to see if the angle is acute or obtuse.
Read the measurement that lines up with the other ray. Make sure the measurement matches either an acute or obtuse angle.
Circles SOL 5.9
A chord is a line segment joining any two points on a circle.
A diameter is a chord that goes through the center of a circle.
A radius is a line segment from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. It is half of a diameter.
A circumference is the perimeter of a circle.
Congruent, Noncongruent, and Similar Figures SOL 5.13b